NCERT Solution for class 9 Social Science

By | 4th August 2019

India – Size and Location

Q.1: Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through

(a) Rajasthan

(b) Odisha

(c) Chhattisgarh

(d) Tripura

(ii) The easternmost longitude of India is

(a) 97° 25′ E

(b) 68° 7′ E

(c) 77° 6′ E

(d) 82° 32′ E

(iii) Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim have common frontiers with

(a) China

(b) Bhutan

(c) Nepal

(d) Myanmar

(iv) If you intend to visit Kavarati during your summer vacations, which one of the following Union Territories of India you will be going to

(a) Puducherry

(b) Lakshadweep

(c) Andaman and Nicobar

(d) Daman and Diu

(v) My friend hails from a country which does not share land boundary with India. Identify the country.

(a) Bhutan

(b) Tajikistan

(c) Bangladesh

(d) Nepal

Ans : (i) (b) Odisha

(ii) (a) 97° 25′ E

(iii) (c) Nepal

(iv) (b) Lakshadweep

(v) (c) Bangladesh

Q.2: Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) Name the group of islands lying in the Arabian Sea.

Ans :  Lakshadweep Islands lie in the Arabian Sea.

(ii) Name the countries which are larger than India.

Ans: Russia, Canada, USA. China, Australia and Brazil are the countries that are larger than India

(iii) Which island group of India lies to its south-east?

Ans: Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie to the South-East of India

(iv) Which island countries are our southern neighbours?

Ans: Sri Lanka and Maldives are the two island countries that are the Southern neighbours of India

Q.3: The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen?

Ans : From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh, there is a time lag of two hours, but the watches show the same time because the time along the Standard Meridian of India (82 0 30′ E) passing through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh is taken as the standard time for the whole country. Because the same standard time for the whole country has been adopted, the watches show the same time in Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat and in all parts of the country.

Q.4: The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?

Ans : The Indian landmass has a central location between East and West Asia. India is a southward extension of the Asian continent.

The trans-Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the West to the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India.

The Deccan peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the Western coast and South-East and East Asia from the Eastern coast.

No other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has.

Thus, India’s eminent position in the Indian Ocean Justifies the naming of an ocean after it.

Physical Features of India

Q.1: Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as

(a) Coast

(b) Island

(c) Peninsula

(d) None of the above

(ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called

(a) Himachal

(b) Uttarakhand

(c) Purvanchal

(d) None of the above

(iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as

(a) Coromandel

(b) Konkan 

(c) Kannad

(d) Northern Circar

(iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is

(a) Anai Mudi

(b) Kanchenjunga

(c) Mahendragiri

(d) Khasi

Ans : (i) (c) Peninsula

(ii) (c) Purvachal

(iii) (c) Kannad

(iv) (c) Mahendragiri

Q.2: Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) What is the bhabar?

Ans : Bhabar is a narrow belt of land about 8 to 16 km wide and covered with pebbles deposited by the rivers and lying parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks.

(ii) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south.

Ans: The 3 major divisions of the Himalayas from North to South are as follows

(a) The Great or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri It is a continuous range consisting of the highest peaks.

(b) Himachal or Lesser Himalayas The range lying to the South of the Himadri is known as Himachal or Lesser Himalayas.

(c) Shiwaliks The outermost range of the Himalayas is known as the Shiwaliks. These are the foothill ranges and represent the southernmost division of the Himalayas.

(iii) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges?

Ans: Malwa plateau lies between the Aravalli and the Vindhyan ranges.

(iv) Name the island group of India having coral origin.

Ans: Lakshadweep Islands are composed of small coral islands.

Q.3: Distinguish between

(i) Bhangar and Khadar

(ii) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats

Ans : (i) Differences between Bhangar and Khadar

S.NO Bhangar Khadar
1. Bhangar is old Alluvial Soil Khadar is new alluvial soil
2. Bhanger soil is found away from the river. Khadar is found near the river basin.
3. Bhangar is less Fertile Khadar is very fertile.
4. It contains calcerous deposits locally known as  Kankar. The soil is fine grained.
5. The soil is dark in colour. The soil is light in colour.

(ii) Difference between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats.

S.NO. The Eastern Ghats The Western Ghats
1. The Eastern ghats mark the eastern edge of Deccan Plateau. The Western ghats mark the western edge of the Deccan Plateau.
2. They are discontinuous and irregular and dissected by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal. They are continuous and can be crossed through passes only.
3. They lie parallel to the eastern coast along the Arabian Sea The Western ghats lie parallel to the west coast along the Ararbian Sea.
4. The highest mountain is Mahendragiri with a height of 1501 metres. The highest mountain is Anai Mudi with a height of 2695 metres
5. Their average height is 600 metres Their average height is 1600 metres.

Q.4: Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.

Ans : The major physiographic divisions of India are

The Himalayan mountains

The Northern plains

The Peninsular plateau

The Indian desert

The Coastal plains

The islands

Contrast between the Himalayan region and the Peninsular plateau

S.No The Himalayan Region The Peninsular Region
1 Formed by folding process due to collision of the Indo Australia plate with the Eurasian Plate. Formed due to breaking and drifting of Gondwana Land.
2. Himalayas are made up of Sedimentary Rocks. Plateau contains igneous and metamorphic rocks.
3. Himalayan mountains forms an unstable zone. Considered to be one of the most stable land block.
4. Himalayas are the most recent landforms. The Deccan Plateau is one of the most ancient landmasses.
5. The average height of the Himalayas is 6000 metres. The average height of the plateau is 900 metres.
6. The Himalayas lack minerals. The Plateau is a storehouse of minerals.
7. Perenial rivers originate in the Himalayas. Peninsular rivers are seasonal.

Q.5: Give an account of the Northern Plains of India.

Ans : (a) The Himalayan uplift out of the Tethys sea and subsidence of the Northern flank of the peninsular plateau resulted in the formation of a large basin. In course of time, this depression gradually got filled with deposition of sediments from rivers flowing from the mountains In the north and led to formation of the fertile Northern plains.

(b) It spreads over an area of 7 lakh sq km. The plain IS about 2400 km long and 240-230 km broad

(c) It is a densely populated and an intensively cultivated area.

(d) With Its adequate water supply and favourable climate, it is agriculturally a very productive part of India

(e) The Northern plains are broadly divided into 3 sections.

(f) The Western part of the Northern plans IS called the Punjab plains, formed by the Indus and its tributaries.

(g) The Ganga plain extends between the Ghaggar and the Teesta rivers, spread over the states of Haryana, Delhi, UP Bihar and West Bengal.

(h) The Brahmaputra Plain to the East of the Ganga plains lies the Brahmaputra plain covering the areas of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh

Q.6: Write short notes on the following.

(i) The Indian Desert

(ii) The Central Highlands

(iii) The Island groups of India

Ans : (i) The Indian Desert

The Indian desert lies towards the Western margin of the Aravalli hills.

It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes.

This region receives very low rainfall, below 150 mm per year.

It has arid climate with low vegetation cover.

Streams appear during the rainy season. Soon they disappear into the sand as they do not have enough water to reach the sea.

Luni is the only large river in this region.

Barchan (Crescent shaped dunes) cover the larger areas but longitudinal dunes become more prominent near the Indo – Pakistan border.

The Indian desert is popularly known as the Thar desert.

(ii) The Central Highlands

The Peninsular plateau consists of two broad divisions, namely the central highlands and the Deccan plateau.

The part of the Peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands.

They are bound by the Vindhya Range from the south and by the Aravalli hills from the north-west.

The further westward extension gradually merges with the sandy and rocky desert of Rajasthan.

The flow of the rivers draining this region, namely the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwe and Ken is from south-west to north-east.

The central highlands are wider in the west but narrower in the east.

The eastward extensions of their plateau are locally known as ‘Bundelkhand’ and Baghelkhand.

The Chhotanagpur plateau marks the further eastward extension drained by the Damodar river.

(iii) The Island Groups of India

India has two groups of islands namely the Lakshadweep group and the Andaman and Nicobar group.

(a) The Lakshadweep Islands Group lie close to the Malabar Coast of Kerala.

These islands are composed of small coral islands.

Earlier, they were known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive. In 1973, these were renamed as the Lakshadweep.

They cover a small area of 32 sq km.

Kavaratti Island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep.

This island group has a great diversity of flora and fauna.

The Pitti Island, which is uninhabited, has a bird sanctuary.

(b) Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The elongated chain of islands located in the Bay of Bengal extending from north to south are the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

They are bigger in size and more numerous and scattered than the Lakshadweep Islands.

The entire group of islands is divided into two broad categories, the Andaman in the north and Nicobar in the south.

It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of the submarine mountains.

These islands are of great – strategic importance for the country.

They have great diversity of flora and fauna.

These islands lie close to the equator experience equatorial climate and have thick forest cover.

Drainage

Q.1: Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following describes the drainage patterns resembling the branches of a tree?
(a) Radial
(b) Dendritic
(c) Centrifugal
(d) Trellis
 
(ii) In which of the following states is the Wular lake located?
(a) Rajasthan  
(b) Uttar Pradesh
(c) Punjab  
(d) Jammu and Kashmir  
 
(iii) The river Narmada has its source at  
(a) Satpura  
(b) Brahmagiri  
(c) Amarkantak  
(d) Slopes of the Western Ghats  
 
(iv) Which one of the following lakes is a salt water lake?  
(a) Sambhar
(b) Dal   
(c) Wular  
(d) Gobind Sagar  
 
(v) Which one of the following is the longest river of the Peninsular India?  
(a) Narmada
(b) Krishna  
(c) Godavari  
(d) Mahanadi  
 
(vi) Which one amongst the following rivers flows through a rift valley?  
(a) Mahanadi
(b) Tungabhadra   
(c) Krishna  
(d) Tapi

Ans : (i) (b) Dendritic

(ii) (d) Jammu and Kashmir

(iii) (c) Amarkantak 

(iv) (a) Sambhar

(v) (c) Godavari 

(vi) (d) Tapi

 
Q.2: Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What is meant by a water divide? Give an example.
(ii) Which is the largest river basin in India?
(iii) Where do the rivers Indus and Ganga have their origin?
(iv) Name the two headstreams of the Ganga. Where do they meet to form the Ganga?
(v) Why does the Brahmaputra in its Tibetan part have less silt, despite a longer course?
(vi) Which two Peninsular rivers flow through trough?
(vii) State some economic benefits of rivers and lakes.

Ans : (i) Any elevated area such as a mountain or an upland that separate two drainage basins is called a water divide. An example are the Western Ghats.

(ii) The Ganga Basin is the largest river basin in India.

(iii) The river Indus rises in Tibet. near lake Mansarovar. and the Ganga originates at the Gangotri Glacier. Both of them have their origin in the Himalayas.

(iv) The two head streams of the Ganga are the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda. They meet at Devprayag in Uttarakhand to form the Ganga.

(v) In TIbet. the river Indus known as Tsang Po carries a smaller volume of water and less silt as it is a cold and dry area.

In India. the river carries a large volume of water and considerable amount of silt because it passes through a region of high rainfall.

(vi) Narmada and Tapi are two peninsular rivers, which flow through a trough.

(vii) Lakes

Lakes are of a great value to human beings.
Lakes help to regulate the flow of rivers.
Lakes help to prevent flooding during rainy season.
During the dry season, lakes help to maintain an even flow of water.
Lakes can also be used for developing hydel power.
They moderate the climate of the surroundings and maintain the aquatic ecosystem.
They enhance natural beauty and help to develop tourism and provide recreation. e.g., Dal Lake and Naini Lake at Nainital.
Lakes provide opportunities for fishery development.
 
Rivers
They help to develop hydel power.
They provide water for irrigation, for drinking and other requirements.
They help to develop fisheries.
 
Q.3: Below are given names of a few lakes of India. Group them under two categories – natural and created by human beings
(a) Wular(b) Dal
(c) Nainital(d) Bhimtal
(e) Govind Sagar(f) Loktak
(g) Barapani(h) Chilka
(i)Sambhar(j) Rana Pratap sagar
(h) Nizam Sagar(i) Pulicat
(m) Nagarjuna Sagar(n) Hirakud
 
Ans:
NaturalManmade
Wular DalNainitalBhimtalLoktakBarapaniChilkaSambharPulicatGovind SagarRana Pratap SagarNizam SagarNagarjuna SagarHirakud 
 
 
Q.4: Discuss the significant difference between the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.

Ans : Difference between the Himalayas and Peninsular rivers are as follows

S.No. Himalayan Rivers Peninsular Rivers
1 Himalayan rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year. A large number of peninsular rivers are seasonal and flow during a certain period in a year.
2 They receive water from rainfall and melting snow of the mountains and glaciers. They receive water from rainfall only.
3 The Himalayan rivers have long courses. The peninsular river have short and shallow courses.
4 They carry a lot of silt and sand. They carry very less or no silt and sand.
5 These rivers originate from the North of the Himalayas mountain ranges. They mainly originate in the western Ghats  
6 Their drainage basins are large. Their drainage basins are small.
7 These river forms big delta. They form small delta.
8 They are useful for irrigation,cultivation and navigation. They are seasonal and flow over rocky areas and are not useful for cultivation and navigation.
Q.5: Compare the east flowing and the west flowing rivers of the Peninsular plateau.

Ans : The difference between east flowing rivers and west flowing rivers are

S.No. East Flowing Rivers West Flowing Rivers
1 These rivers originate from the Western Ghats and flow eastwards. These rivers originate in central India and flow westwards.
2 These rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal These rivers flow into the Arabian Sea.
3 These rivers form deltas at their mouths. These rivers form estuaries at their mouths.
4 They carry larger amount of water. They carry a lesser amount of water.
5 Examples are Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri. Examples are Narmada and Tapi.
Q.6: Why are rivers important for the country’s economy?

Ans : Rives are important for the country’s economy because water from the rivers is a basic natural resource essential for various human activities. These are

1.    The rivers provide water for irrigation.
2.    They provide fertility to the soil.
3.    They are useful for navigation
4.    They help to generate hydro-electricity.
5.    They help to develop tourism.
6.    They provide water for various domestic uses.
7.    They provide livelihood to fishermen.
8.    They help to moderate the climate and environment of nearby areas.
Climate
Q.1: Choose the correct answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Which one of the following places receives the highest rainfall in the world?
(a) Silchar
(c) Cherrapunji
(b) Mawsynram
(d) Guwahati
 
(ii) The wind blowing in the northern plains in summers is known as:
(a) Kaal Baisakhi
(c) Trade Winds
(b) Loo
(d) None of the above
 
(iii) Which one of the following causes rainfall during winters in north-western part of India.
(a) Cyclonic depression
(c) Western disturbances
(b) Retreating monsoon
(d) Southwest monsoon
 
(iv) Monsoon arrives in India approximately in:
(a) Early May
(b) Early July
(c) Early June
(d) Early August
 
(v) Which one of the following characterises the cold weather season in India?
(a) Warm days and warm nights
(b) Warm days and cold nights
(c) Cool days and cold nights
(d) Cold days and warm nights

Ans : (i) (b) Mawsynram

(ii) (b) Loo

(iii) (a) Cyclonic depression

(iv) (c) Early June

(v) (b) Warm days and cold nights

 
Q.2: Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What are the controls affecting the climate of India?

Ans : (i) There are six major controls of the climate of any place. They are latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system, distance from the sea (continentality), ocean currents and relief features.

 
(ii) Why does India have a monsoon type of climate?

Ans: The monsoon winds play an important role in the climate of India. Therefore, it is called the monsoon type of climate.

 
(iii) Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal range of temperature and why?

Ans: The north-western part of India experiences the highest diurnal range of temperature. In the Thar desert, the day temperature may rise to 50 0 e and drop down to near 15°e the same night. On the other hand, there is hardly any difference in day and night temperatures in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands or in Kerala .

 
(iv) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar coast?

Ans: The south west monsoon winds are responsible for the rainfall along the Malabar coast.

 
(v) What are Jet streams and how do they affect the climate of India?

Ans: (v) Jet streams are a narrow belt of high altitude (above 12000 m) westerly winds in the troposphere.

(a) Their speed varies from about 110 km/h in summer to about 184 km/h in winter.

(b) A number of separate jet streams have been identified.

(c) The most constant are the mid latitude and subtropical jet streams.

(d) Jet streams over the Indian peninsula during the summer affect the monsoon.

(e) The subtropical westerly jet stream blow south of the Himalayas and is responsible for the western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the north and north western parts of the country.

(f) An easterly jet stream blows over peninsular India. It affects the coastal regions of the country and is responsible for tropical cyclones during the monsoon as well as during the October to November period.

 
(vi) Define monsoons. What do you understand by “break” in monsoon?

Ans: The monsoons are moisture laden winds from the southwest which bring heavy rainfall to southern Asia, in summer.

‘Break’ in monsoon means that the monsoon has alternate wet and dry spells. This means that the monsoon rains take place for a few days at a time. These wet spells are interspersed with dry spells related to the movement of the monsoon trough.

 
(vii) Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond?

Ans: The seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons.

Monsoon rains are unevenly distributed and typically uncertain. The Indian landscape, plant and animal life, agriculture, the people and their festivities, all revolve around the monsoon. All the Indian people eagerly await the arrival of the monsoon. It binds the whole country by providing water which sets all agricultural activities in motion. That is why the monsoon is considered a unifying bond.

 
Q.3: Why does the rainfall decrease from the east to the west in Northern India.

Ans : Rainfall decreases from the east to the west in Northern India because there is a decrease in the moisture of the winds. As the moisture bearing winds of the Bay of Bengal branch of the south west monsoon move further and further inland, the moisture gradually decreases and results in low rainfall when moving westwards. Consequently, states like Gujarat and Rajasthan in western India get very little rainfall.

 
Q.4: Give reasons as to why.
(i) Seasonal reversal of wind direction takes place over the Indian subcontinent?

Ans: (i) During winter, there is a high pressure area north of the Himalayas. Cold winds blow from this region to the low pressure areas over the oceans to the south.

(a) In summer, a low pressure area develops over interior Asia as well as over north-western India.

(b) This causes a complete reversal of the direction of winds during summer.

 
(ii) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months.

Ans: In summer, a low pressure area develops over interior Asia as well as over north western India.

(a) This causes a complete reversal of the direction of winds during summer. Air moves from the high pressure area over the southern Indian ocean, crosses the equator and turns right towards the low pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent.

(b) These are known as the south-west monsoon winds.

(c) These winds blow over warm oceans, gather moisture and bring widespread rainfall over the mainland of India.

(d) The duration of the monsoon is between 100-120 days from early June to mid September. Thus, we can say that rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months.

 
(iii) The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall.

Ans: (iii) During the winter season, -the north-west trade winds prevail over the country. They blow from land to sea and hence for most part of the country it is a dry season.

Some amount of rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as here they blow from sea to land.

 
(iv) The delta region of the eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones.

Ans: The delta region of the eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones because the cyclonic depressions which originate over the Andaman Sea generally cross the Eastern coasts of India and cause heavy and widespread rain.

(a) These cyclones are often very destructive. The thickly populated deltas of the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri are frequently struck by cyclones which cause great damage to life and property.

(b) Sometimes these cyclones arrive at the coasts of Odisha, West Bengal and Bangladesh.

 
(v) Parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought-prone.

Ans: Parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought prone because they receive scanty rainfall. Even during the monsoon months the monsoon winds when rising over the Western Ghats give rain to that area. By the time they reach Rajasthan and Gujarat there is very less moisture left in these winds and so these areas are drought prone.

Q.5: Describe the regional variations in the climatic conditions of India with the help of suitable examples.

Ans : There are regional variations in the climatic conditions of India which can be understood with the help of the following examples

(a) The months of December and January are the coldest in Northern India where the temperature ranges between 10°-15°.

(b) In summer, the mercury occasionally touches 50°C in some parts of the Rajasthan desert, whereas it might be around 2O°C in pahalgam In Jammu and Kashmir.

(c) On a winter night temperature at Drass in Jammu and Kashmir may be as low as minus 40″C. Thiruvananthapuram on the other hand may have a temperature of 22° C.

(d) Annual precipitation varies from over 400 em in Meghalaya to less than 10 cm in Ladakh and western Rajasthan. In the Himalayas precipitation is in the form of snowfall.

(e) Coastal region does not experience much variation in temperature pattern due to the moderating influence of the sea.

Q.6: Discuss the mechanism of monsoons.

Ans : The climate of India is described as the monsoon type

(a) The factors affecting the climate of an area are latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system distance from the sea,

(b) Pressure and surface winds, and relief features,

(c) India lies in the region of north-easterly winds. These winds originate from the subtropical high pressure belt in the northern hemisphere, get deflected to the right due to the coriollis force and move on towards the equatorial low pressure area.

(d) In summer, a low pressure area develops over interior Asia and north-western India. This causes complete reversal of the direction of the winds during summer. Air moves from the high pressure area over the southern Indian Ocean, crosses the equator and turns right towards the low pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent. These are known as the south-west monsoon winds. These winds blow over the warm oceans, gather moisture and bring widespread rainfall over the mainland of India.

(e) The upper air circulation in this region is dominated by a westerly flow.

(f) The duration of the monsoon is between 100-120 days from early June to mid September.

(g) The Southern Oscillation (SO) and jet streams also affects the monsoon.

Withdrawal or Retreat of Monsoon The withdrawal or retreat of the monsoon begins in the states of India by early September. By mid October, it withdraws completely from the northern half of the peninsula. By December, the monsoon has withdrawn from the rest of the country.

 
Q.7: Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold season.

Ans : The cold weather season begins from the November in northern India and stays till February. December and January are the coldest months

in the northern part of India.

(a) The weather is normally marked by clear sky, low temperatures, low humidity and feeble variable winds.

(b) Days are warm and nights are cold. Frost is common in the north and higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall.

(c) During this season, the north-east trade winds blow from land to sea and hence for most parts of the country it is a dry season. Some amount of rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as they blow there from sea to land.

(d) A characteristic feature of the cold weather season over the northern plains is the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and the north-west. The low pressure systems originate over the Mediterranean Sea and Western Asia and move into India along with the westerly flow. They cause the much needed winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains.

(e) Although, the total amount of winter rainfall locally known as ‘Mahawat’ is small, it is of immense importance for the cultivation of ‘rabi’ crops.

(f) The peninsular region does not have a well defined cold season. There is hardly any noticeable change in temperature pattern during winter due to the moderating influence of the sea.

 
Q.8: Give the characteristics and effects of the monsoon rainfall in India.

Ans : Characteristics

(a) The climate of India is described as the ‘monsoon’ type.

(b) Monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during the year.

(c) The duration of monsoon is between 100-120 days from early June to mid September. Around the time of its arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days. This is known as ‘burst’ of the monsoon.

(d) The monsoon has a tendency to have ‘breaks’; thus, it has wet and dry spells. In other words, monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time.

(e) The monsoon is known for its uncertainties.

(f) The alternation of dry and wet spells vary in intensity, frequency and duration.

(g) Distribution of Rainfall Parts of the western coast and north-eastern India receive over 400 cm of rainfall; however, it is less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Kashmir also receives low rainfall.

The withdrawal of the monsoon begins when the south-west monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually. By the beginning of October, the monsoon withdrawal from the northern plains. By mid October, it withdraws completely from the northern half of the peninsula. By early December, the monsoon has withdrawn from the rest of India.

Effects of the Monsoon

(a) India has traditionally been an agricultural country with more than 50% of its population dependent on agriculture.

(b) A large part of the country’s agriculture is mainly dependent upon the monsoon rains.

(c) There is great variation in the rainfall received by the different parts of the country, somewhere it leads to floods and its absence in other parts leads to drought like conditions.

(d) The Indian landscape, its animal and plant life, the entire agricultural calendar and the life of the people, including their festivities revolve around this phenomenon (monsoon).

(e) The monsoon winds bind the whole country by providing water to set the agricultural activities in motion.

It is often irregular in its arrival and its retreat sometimes disturbs the farming schedule of millions of farmers all over the country.

 
Q.1: Choose  the  right  answer  from  the  four  alternatives  given  below.
(i) What causes rainfall on the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu in the beginning of  winters?
(a) South-West  monsoon
(b) Temperate  cyclones
(c) North-Eastern  monsoon
(d) Local  air  circulation
 
(ii) What is the proportion of area of India which receives annual rainfall less than  75  cm?
(a) Half
(b) One-third
(c) Two-third
(d) Three-fourth
 
(iii) Which  one  of  the  following  is  not  a  fact  regarding  South  India?
(a) Diurnal  range  of  temperature  is  less  here.
(b) Annual  range  of  temperature  is  less  here.
(c) Temperatures  here  are  high  throughout  the  year
(d) Extreme  climatic  conditions  are  found  here.
 
(iv) Which  one  of  the  following  phenomenon  happens  when  the  sun  shines vertically  over  the  Tropic  of  Capricorn  in  the  southern  hemisphere?
(a) High  pressure  develops  over  North-western  India  due  to  low temperatures.
(b) Low  pressure  develops  over  North-western  India  due  to  high temperatures.
(c) No  changes  in  temperature  and  pressure  occur  in  north-western India.
(d) ‘Loo’  blows  in  the  North-western  India.
 
(v) In which of the following states in India do we find ‘As’ type of climate as per  Koeppen’s classification?
(a) In  Kerala  and  coastal  Karnataka
(b) In  Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands
(c) On  Coromandel  coast
(d) In  Assam  and  Arunachal  Pradesh

Ans : (i)(c) North-Eastern  monsoon

(ii) (d) Three-fourth

(iii) (d) Extreme  climatic  conditions  are  found  here.

(iv) (a) High  pressure  develops  over  North-western  India  due  to  low temperatures.

(v) (c) On  Coromandel  coast

Q.2: Answer  the  following  questions  in  about  30  words.
(i) What  are  the  three  important  factors  which  influence  the  mechanism  of Indian  weather?
(ii) What  is  the  Intertropical  Convergence  Zone?
(iii) What  is  meant  by  ‘bursting  of  monsoon’?  Name  the  place  of  India  which gets  the  highest  rainfall.
(iv) Define  ‘climatic  region’?  What  are  the  bases  of  Koeppen’s  classification?
(v) Which  type(s)  of  cyclones  cause  rainfall  in  north-western  India  during winter?  Where do  they  originate?

Ans : (i) The three important factors which influence the mechanism of Indian weather are:

·         Distribution of air pressure and winds on the surface of the earth.
 
·         Upper air circulation caused by factors controlling global weather and the inflow of different air masses and jet streams.
 
·         Inflow of western cyclones generally known as disturbances during the winter season and tropical depressions during the south-west monsoon period into India, creating weather conditions favourable to rainfall.
 
(ii) The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a low pressure zone located at the equatomhere trade winds converge, and so, it is a zone where air tends to ascend.
 
(iii) The sudden onset of the moisture-laden winds associated with violent thunder and lightning, is often termed as the "break" or "burst" of the monsoons. Mawsynram in Meghalaya is the place of India which gets the highest rainfall.
 
(iv) A climatic region has a homogeneous climatic condition which is the result of a combination of factors. The bases of Koeppen's classification are:
·         Temperature
·         Precipitation
 
(v) Western cyclonic disturbances cause rainfall in north-western India during winter. They originate over the Mediterranean Sea. 
 
Q.3: Answer  the  following  questions  in  not  more  than  125  words.
 
(i) Notwithstanding  the  broad  climatic  unity,  the  climate  of  India  has  many regional  variations.  Elaborate  this  statement  giving  suitable  examples.

Ans : (i) Due to the influence of monsoon, India as a whole has broad climatic unity. However, the climate of India has many regional variations expressed in the pattern of winds, temperature and rainfall, rhythm of seasons and the degree of wetness or dryness. There are various examples of this:

·         Temperature: In the summer the mercury occasionally touches 550C in the western Rajasthan, it drops down to as low as minus 450C in winter around Leh. Churu in Rajasthan may record a temperature of 500C or more on a June day while the temperature in Tawang (Arunachal Pradesh) is 190C on the same day.
·         Rainfall: Cherrapunji and Mawsynram in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya receive rainfall over 1,080 cm in a year while Jaisalmer in Rajasthan rarely gets more than 9 cm of rainfall during the same period.
·         Monsoon: The Ganga delta and the coastal plains of Orissa are hit by strong rain-bearing storms almost every third or fifth day in July and August while the Coromandel coast, a thousand km to the south, goes generally dry during these months.
 
(ii) How  many  distinct  seasons  are  found  in  India  as  per  the  Indian Meteorological  Department?  Discuss  the  weather  conditions  associated with  any  one  season  in  detail
Ans (ii) The meteorological department recognise the following four seasons :
(a) the cold weather season
(b) the hot weather season
(c) the southwest monsoon season
(d) the retreating monsoon season.
·  The cold weather season: The cold weather season sets in by mid-November in northern India.
December and January are the coldest months in the northern plain. The mean daily temperature remains below 210C over most parts of northern India. The night temperature may be quite low. The Peninsular region of India, however, does not have any well-defined cold weather season. There is hardly any seasonal change in the distribution pattern of the temperature in coastal areas because of moderating influence of the sea and the proximity to equator.
During the winters, the weather in India is pleasant. The pleasant weather conditions, however, at intervals, get disturbed by shallow cyclonic depressions originating over the east Mediterranean Sea and travelling eastwards.
Winter monsoons do not cause rainfall as they move from land to the sea. It is because they have little humidity and due to anti cyclonic circulation on land. So, most parts of India do not have rainfall in the winter season. However, there are some exceptions, Rainfall occurs in northwestern India due to western disturbances. Central parts of India and northern parts of southern peninsula also get winter rainfall occasionally.
Q.1: Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below
(i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
(a) Tundra
(b) Tidal
(c) Himalayan
(d) Tropical Evergreen
 
(ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than
(a) 100 cm
(b) 50 cm
(c) 70 cm
(d) less than 50 cm
 
(iii) In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?
(a) Punjab
(b) Delhi
(c) Odisha
(d) West Bengal
 
(iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bioreserve?
(a) Manas
(b) Nilgiri
(c) Gulf of Mannar
(d) Nanda Devi

Ans : (i) (d) Tropical Evergreen

(ii) (a) 100 cm

(iii) (c) Odisha

(iv) (a) Manas

 
Q.2: Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Define an ecosystem.

Ans : (i) All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent and interrelated to each other in their physical environment, thus forming an ecosystem. Human beings are also an integral part of the ecosystem. They utilise the vegetation and wild life.

 
(ii) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India?

Ans: The factors responsible for the distribution of plants (flora) and animals (fauna) in India are:

(a)Relief factors    

Land
Oil
 
(b) Climate
Temperature
Precipitation
Photoperiod (sunlight)
 
(iii) What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.
Ans: A bioreserve is an area in which the flora and fauna of the given country is protected and there are certain researches which are done on them. It is an area containing a wildlife preserve bordered by a buffer zone in which more frequent use is permitted to the public, established as a way of integrating habitat conservation with the interests of the local community.
Examples are Rajaji in Uttarakhand and Simlipal in Orissa.
 
(iv) Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation.
Ans: Animals found in Tropical forests are lion. Tiger, pig, deer and elephant.
Animals found in montane forests are Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair. 
 
Q.3: Distinguish between
(i) Flora and Fauna
(ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests

Ans : (i) Difference between Flora and Fauna

S.No. Flora Fauna
(a) The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular region or period. The species of animals are referred to as fauna.
(b) They make their own food by photosynthesis. They cannot make their own food.

(ii) Difference between Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous Forests

S.No Tropical Evergreen Forests Tropical Deciduous Forests
1 They grow in areas of heavy rainfall 200cm and above. They grow in areas receiving rainfall between 70 cm to 200cm
2 There is no define time for trees to shade their leaves. The trees shed their leaves for about 6 to 8 weeks ion dry summer.
3 Ebony, mahagony, rosewood, rubber and chincona are the important trees of these forests. Teak, Bamboo, Sal, Seesham, Sandalwood, Khair, Kusum, Arjun, Peepal and Neem are the important trees of these forests.
4 Common animals found in these forests are elephants, monkeys, lemur, deer and the one horned rhinoceros. Common animals found in these forests are Lion, tiger deer and elephant.
5 Plenty of birds, bats, sloths, and scorpions are also found in these forests. A huge variety of birds, lizards snakes and tortoise are found in these forests.
6 These forests are found in areas of Western Ghats and the island group of Lakshadweep, Andaman & Nicobar, Upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu Coast. These forests are mainly found in eastern part of India, north eastern states along the foothills the Himalayas, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, on the western slopes of Western Ghats,Madhya Pradesh,Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Q.4: Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.

Ans : The following major types of vegetation are found in India

Tropical Evergreen Forests
Tropical Deciduous Forests
Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrub
Montane Forests
Mangrove Forests
Vegetation of High Altitude (Montane Forests)
·         In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to a corresponding change in natural vegetation.
·         The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres, where evergreen broad leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominate.
·         Temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found between 1500 and 3000 metres.
·         These forests cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas, places having high altitudes in southern and north east India.
·         Temperate grasslands are common at higher elevations.
·         At high altitudes, generally more than 3,600 metres above sea level, alpine vegetation is found. Silver fir, jumpers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests
 
Q.5: Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?

Ans : (i) Many plants and animals in India are endangered because of the greediness of human beings for their commercial value. Humans are hunting animals for their skins, horns and hooves which are In demand and give a lot of profit.

(ii) Deforestation on a wide scale destroys the habitat of animals and also leads to the decline of the different species of trees and plants. Ecological balance is disturbed due to deforestation, which is harmful to both flora and fauna.

Q.6: Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?    

Ans : India has a rich heritage of flora and fauna because of the following It has a very large geographical area which includes the mountains, the Northern plains, plateaus and also islands.

·         India has a varied climate from very dry to monsoon type and temperature ranges from very hot to cold and very Cold, which is suitable for different kinds of flora and fauna.
·         India has different types of soil like alluvial soil, red soil and black soil suitable for different plant types.
·         India is blessed with perennial rivers which sustain aquatic life apart from supporting different kinds of flora and fauna.
 
·         The mountains and plains are capable of supporting and sustaining different kinds of plants and trees and provide an environment and habitat for various Kinds of animal species.
India is one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world. It has about 47,000 plant species. It stands at the tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. It has 89,000 species of animals as well as a rich variety of fish. It has about 15,000 flowering plants and ferns. India is blessed with different types of soils, climatic conditions and physical features and thus, it is suitable for supporting different species of flora and fauna making it a biodiversity hot spot. 
Q.1: Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below.
(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in
(a) the area of departure
(b) the area of arrival
(c) both the area of departure and arrival
(d) none of the above
 
(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of
(a) high birth rates
(b) high life expectancies
(c) high death rates
(d) more married couples
 
(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to
(a) the total population of an area
(b) the number of persons added each year
(c) the rate at which the population increases
(d) the number of females per thousand males
 
(iv) According to the Census, a “literate” person is one who
(a) can read and write his/her name
(b) can read and write any language
(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding
(d) knows the 3 ‘R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic)

Ans : (i) (c) both the area of departure and arrival

(ii) (a) high birth rates

(iii) (b) the number of persons added each year

(iv) (c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding

 
Q.2: Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?

Ans : (i) Since 1981, the rate of growth started declining gradually, because of popularised.

(a) Family planning measures were adopted, leading to decline in the birth rate.

(b) Awareness about advantages of small family came to be recognised.

(c) There was a growth of nuclear families occurred which adopted the small family norm.

(d) Promotion of family planning programme by the government.

 
 
(ii) Discuss the major components of population growth.

Ans:  The major components of population growth are birth rates, death rates and migration.

The natural increase of population is the difference between birth rates and death rates.

Birth Rate Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand person in a year. It is a major component of growth, because in India birth rates have always been higher than death rates.

Death Rate Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian

population has been the rapid decline in death rates.

Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries).

Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation.

 
(iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.

Ans: Age Structure age structure means the number of people in different age groups in a given population.

Death Rate Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons In a year.

Birth Rate Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year.

 
(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?

Ans: Migration a Determinant Factor

·         Migration is the movement’ of people across regions and territories.
·         Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries).
·         Migration is a determinant factor of population change as it changes its size and composition.
·         Internal migration does not change the size of the population but influences the distribution of population within the nation.
·         In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the ‘push’ factors in rural areas. These push factors are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas. The ‘pull’ factors of the city are In terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.
 
·         These ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors have led to increased migration from rural to urban areas and rapid rise in the urban population.
·         There has been a significant increase in the number of ‘million plus cities’ from 25 to 35 in just one decade i.e., 1991-2001.
 
Q.3: Distinguish between population growth and population change.

Ans : The differences between population growth and population change are given in the table below

Population Growth Population Change
This refers to the increase in number of inhabitants of a region during a specific period of time. Natural increase of population and immigration are the major components causing population growth. This refers to the change in the distribution, composition of size of a population during a specific period of time. Natural increase, immigration and emigration are the major components causing population change.
Q.4: What is the relation between occupational structure and development?

Ans : The distribution of the population according to the different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure.

·         Occupations are generally classified as primary, secondary and tertiary.
·         Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, etc.
·         Secondary activities include manufacturing industry, building and construction work, etc.
·         Tertiary activities Include transport. communications, etc.
·         The proportion of people working in different activities varies in developed and developing countries.
·         Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities.
·         In India about 64% of the population Is engaged only in agriculture.
·         The proportion of the population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is about 13 and 20% respectively.
·         There has been an occupational shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation in recent times.
 
Q.5: What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Ans : Health is an important component of population composition which affects the process of development. So we need a healthy population.

(a) The health of a person helps him/her to realise his/her potential and gives the ability to fight illness.

(b) A healthy person is an asset to the country, is more productive and helps in the progress of the country.

(c) A healthy person is able to earn more and Improve his standard of living.

(d) A healthy population makes a healthy and strong nation economically and socially.

Q.6: What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000?

Ans : Aims/Objectives of National Population Policy 2000

·         Imparting free and compulsory school education upto 14 years of age.
·         Reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births.
·         Achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.
·         Promoting delayed marriage for girls.
·         Making family welfare a people centered programme.
·         Protection of adolescent girls from unwanted pregnancies.
·         Protection of adolescents from Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and educating them about the risks of unprotected sex.
·         Making contraceptive services ‘accessible and affordable.
·         Providing food supplement and nutritional services.
·         Strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage

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